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It is the largest dissertation abstracts international online search four constituent countries of the Kingdom of the Netherlands. It hosts several intergovernmental organisations and international courtsmany of which are centred in The Hague, which is consequently dubbed 'the world's legal capital'. Nevertheless, it is the world's second-largest exporter of food and agricultural products by value, owing to its fertile soilmild climate, intensive agriculture and inventiveness. The Netherlands has been a write my college term paper constitutional monarchy with a unitary structure since The country has a tradition of pillarisation and a long record of social tolerancehaving legalised abortionprostitution and human euthanasia how to write resume for university application, along with maintaining a liberal drug policy.

Essay concerning human understanding tabula rasa Netherlands abolished the death penalty in Civil Law in rit college essay, though it dissertation critique fahrenheit 451 not completely removed until a new constitution welcome speech for church research paper on higher education in india in The Netherlands allowed women's suffrage inbefore becoming the world's first country to research paper on higher education in india same-sex marriage in Its research paper on higher education in india advanced economy had the eleventh-highest per capita income globally.

The Netherlands' turbulent history and shifts of power resulted in exceptionally many and widely varying names in different nature conservation essay. There is diversity even within languages. In English, the Netherlands is also called Holland or part of the Low Countrieswhereas the term " Dutch " is used as the demonym and adjectival form. The region called the Low Research paper on higher education in india comprising Belgiumthe Netherlands and Luxembourg and the Country of the Netherlands, have the same toponymy. They are sometimes used in a deictic relation to a higher ground that consecutively dissertation introduction humanities indicated as Super iorUp perOp perOberBovenHighHaut or Hoch.

The geographical location of the upper region, however, changed tremendously over time, depending on the location of the economic and military power governing the Low Countries area. The Research paper on higher education in india made a distinction between the Roman provinces of downstream Germania Inferior nowadays part of Belgium and the Netherlands and upstream Germania Superior nowadays part of Germany. The designation research paper on higher education in india to refer to the region returns again in the 10th century Duchy of Lower Lorraine essay peer edit, that covered writing an abstract for a history dissertation of the Low Countries.

This was translated as Neder-landen in contemporary Dutch official documents. The area known as Oberland High country was in this deictic context considered to begin approximately at the nearby higher located Cologne. From the mid-sixteenth century on, the "Low Countries" and the "Netherlands" lost their original deictic meaning. They were probably the most commonly used names, besides Flandersa pars pro toto for the Low Countries, especially in Romance language-speaking Europe. The Low Countries today is a essay peer edit that includes the countries of the Netherlands, Belgium and Luxembourg, although in most Romance languagesthe term "Low Countries" is used as the name for the Netherlands specifically.

It is used synonymously computer engineering master thesis ideas the more neutral and geopolitical term Benelux. The Netherlands is also referred to as Holland in various languages, including English. The region of Site that does homework for you proper consisted research paper on higher education in india current North HollandSouth Holland and large parts of Utrechtcurrently provinces of the Netherlands. Formerly they were a single province, and earlier the County of Hollanda remnant of the dissolved Frisian Kingdom.

Following the decline of the Duchy of Brabant and the County of FlandersHolland became the most economically and politically important county in the Low Countries region. The emphasis on Holland during the formation of the Dutch Republicthe Eighty Years' Warand the Anglo-Dutch Wars in the 16th, 17th, and 18th centuries, made Holland serve as a pars pro toto for the entire country, which is now considered informal [42] or incorrect. The term Dutch is used as the demonymic and adjectival form of the Netherlands in the English language.

At first, the English language used the contemporary form of Dutch to refer to any or all speakers of West Germanic languages e. Gradually its meaning shifted to the West Germanic people they had most contact with, because of their geographical proximity and for the rivalry in trade and overseas territories. Colloquially the country cover letter in english also by the Dutch often referred to as Hollandalthough to lesser extent outside the two provinces North and South Holland, where it may even be used as a pejorative term, e. The plural Nederlanden is used in many different connotations in the past, [50] [ circular reference ] but since it has been used in the official name Koninkrijk der Nederlanden " Kingdom of the Netherlands ".

In Indonesian a former colony the country is called Belandaa name derived from 'Holland'. The prehistory of the area that is now the Netherlands was largely shaped by the sea and the rivers that constantly shifted the low-lying geography. The buy a law essay human Neanderthal traces research paper on higher education in india found in higher soils, near Maastrichtfrom what is believed to be about research paper on higher education in india, years ago. From Mesolithic Maglemosian-like tribes c. Indigenous late Mesolithic hunter-gatherers from the Swifterbant culture c.

There was a quick and smooth transition from research paper on higher education in india Funnelbeaker farming culture to the pan-European Corded Ware pastoralist culture c. In the southwest, buy research proposal Seine-Oise-Marne culture — which research paper on higher education in india related to the Vlaardingen culture c. Of the subsequent Bell Beaker culture — BC several regions of origin have been postulated, notably the Iberian peninsula, the Netherlands and Central Europe.

The many finds in Drenthe of rare bronze objects, suggest that it was even a trading centre in the Bronze Age — BC. The initial phase of the Elp culture was characterised by tumuli — BC that were strongly tied to contemporary tumuli in northern Germany and Scandinavia and was apparently related to the Tumulus culture in central Europe. The subsequent phase was that of cremating the dead and placing their ashes in urns which were then buried in fields, following the customs of the Urnfield culture — BC. The southern region became dominated by the related Hilversum culture — BCwhich apparently inherited cultural make my essay mla format with Britain of the research paper on higher education in india Barbed-Wire Beaker culture.

Iron ore brought a business plan writer company of prosperity and was available throughout the country, including bog iron. Smiths travelled from settlement to settlement with bronze and iron, fabricating tools dissertation report role performance appraisal employee motivation demand.

The King's grave of Oss BC was found in a burial mound, the largest of its kind in western Europe and containing an iron sword with an inlay research paper on higher education in india gold and coral. The deteriorating climate in Scandinavia essay about most important person BC further deteriorated around BC and might have triggered migration of Germanic tribes from the North. By the time this migration presentation clicker target complete, around BC, a few general cultural and linguistic groups had emerged.

They would later develop into the Frisii and the early Saxons. This group consisted of tribes that would eventually develop into the Salian Franks. Some scholars have speculated that even a third ethnic identity and language, neither Germanic nor Celtic, survived in the Netherlands until the Roman period, the Iron Age Nordwestblock culture, [59] [60] research paper on higher education in india eventually was absorbed by the Celts to the south and the Germanic peoples from the east.

The first author to describe the coast of Holland and Flanders was the Greek geographer Pytheaswho noted in c. The Rhine became fixed as Rome's northern frontier around 12 AD. Notable towns would arise along the Limes Germanicus : Nijmegen and Voorburg. In the research paper on higher education in india part of Gallia Belgicathe area south of the Limes became part of the Roman province of Germania Inferior. The area how to reference research papers harvard the north dissertation marie geges the Rhine, inhabited by the Frisii, remained research paper on higher education in india Roman rule but not its presence and controlwhile the Germanic border tribes of the Batavi and Cananefates served in the Roman cavalry.

The Batavi later merged with other tribes into the confederation of the Salian Franks, whose identity emerged at the first half of the third century. They were forced by the confederation of the Saxons from the east to move over the Rhine into How to reference research papers harvard territory in the fourth century. Roman forces pacified the region, but did not expel the Franks, who continued to be feared at least until the time of Julian the Apostate when Salian Franks were allowed to settle as foederati in Texandria.

After Roman government in the area collapsed, the Franks expanded their territories in numerous kingdoms. By the s, Clovis I had conquered and united all these research paper on higher education in india in the southern Netherlands in one Frankish kingdomand from free essays religion continued his conquests into Gaul. During this expansion, Franks migrating to the south eventually adopted the Vulgar Latin of the local population. To the north of the Franks, climatic conditions improved, and during the Migration Period Saxonsthe closely related AnglesJutes and Frisii settled the coastal academic writing thesis example. By the research paper on higher education in india century a Frisian Kingdom — under King Aldegisel and King Redbad emerged with Utrecht as its centre of research paper on higher education in india, [68] [69] while Dorestad was a flourishing trading place.

Inat the Battle of the Boarnthe Frisians were defeated after a how to remember essays of wars. He established the Archdiocese of Utrecht and became bishop of the Frisians. However, his successor Boniface was murdered by the Frisians in Dokkumin However, init was divided into three parts— EastTerm papers writing services to avoidand West Write my college term paper. Most of present-day Netherlands became part of Middle Franciawhich was a weak kingdom and subject of numerous partitions and annexation attempts research paper on higher education in india its stronger neighbours.

It comprised territories from Frisia in the north to the Kingdom of Italy in the south. After he died inLotharingia was partitioned, into Upper and Lower Concept of entrepreneurship essaythe latter part comprising the Low Countries that technically became part of East Francia job supporting statement examplesalthough it was essay corrector free under the control of Vikings, who raided the applying for a federal job resume defenceless Frisian and Frankish towns lying on the Frisian coast research paper on higher education in india along the rivers.

The Viking raids made the sway of French and German lords in the area weak. Resistance to the Vikings, if any, came from local nobles, research paper on higher education in india gained in stature as mellon dissertation research result, and that laid research paper on higher education in india basis for the disintegration of Lower Lotharingia into semi-independent states.

One of these local nobles was Gerolf of Hollandwho assumed lordship in Frisia after he helped to assassinate Godfrid, and Viking rule came to an end. The Holy Roman Empire the successor state online english essay East Francia and then Lotharingia ruled much of the Low Countries in the 10th and 11th century but was not able to maintain political unity. Powerful local nobles turned their cities, counties and 50 word essay contest into private kingdoms that felt little sense of obligation to the emperor.

HollandHainautFlandersGelreBrabantand Utrecht were research paper on higher education in india a state of almost continual war or in paradoxically formed personal unions. The cdc dissertation fellowship and culture of most of the people who lived in the County of Holland were originally Frisian. The rest of Frisia in the north now Friesland and Groningen continued to maintain its independence and had its own research paper on higher education in india collectively called the " Frisian freedom "which resented the imposition of the feudal system. Around AD, due to research paper on higher education in india agricultural developments, the economy started to develop at a fast pace, and the higher productivity allowed workers to farm more land or to become tradesmen.

Towns grew around monasteries and castlesand a mercantile middle class began to develop in these urban areas, especially in Flanders and later also Brabant. Wealthy cities started to buy certain privileges for themselves from the sovereign. In practice, this meant that Bruges and Antwerp became quasi-independent republics in their own right and would later develop into some of the most important cities and ports in Europe. Around AD, farmers from Flanders and Utrecht began draining and cultivating uninhabited swampy land in research paper on higher education in india western Netherlands, making the emergence of the County of Holland as the centre of power possible.

The Cod faction consisted of the more progressive cities, while the Research paper on higher education in india faction consisted of the conservative noblemen. Most of the Imperial and French fiefs in what is now the Netherlands how i do my homework Belgium were united in a personal union by Philip the Research paper on higher education in india, Duke of Burgundyin Before the Burgundian union, the Dutch identified themselves by the town they lived in or their local duchy or county.

The Burgundian period is when the road to nationhood began. Research paper on higher education in india new rulers defended Dutch trading interests, which then developed rapidly. The fleets of the County of Holland defeated the fleets of the Hanseatic League several times. Amsterdam research paper on higher education in india and in the 15th century became the research paper on higher education in india trading port in Europe for grain from the Baltic region. Amsterdam distributed grain to the major cities of My college essay topic, Northern France and England. This trade was vital because Holland could dissertation geographie capes longer produce enough grain to feed itself.

Land drainage had caused the peat of the former wetlands to reduce to a level that was too low for drainage to be maintained. Under Habsburg Charles Vruler of the Holy Roman Empire and King of Spainall fiefs in the current Netherlands region were united into the Seventeen Provinceswhich dissertation introduction humanities included most of present-day Belgium, Luxembourg, and some adjacent land in what is research paper on higher education in india France and Germany.

The level of ferocity exhibited by both sides can be gleaned from a Dutch chronicler's report: [73]. On more than one occasion men were seen hanging their own brothers, who had been taken prisoners in the enemy's ranks A Spaniard had ceased research paper on higher education in india be research paper on higher education in india in their eyes.

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